In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process through which cellular ribosomes manufacture proteins. It is part of the process of gene expression. In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein. In bacteria, translation occurs in the cell's cytoplasm, where the large and small subunits of the ribosome are located, and bind to the mRNA. In eukaryotes, translation occurs across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called vectorial synthesis.
The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of tRNAs with complementary anticodon sequences to that of the mRNA. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the mRNA passes through and is "read" by the ribosome in a fashion reminiscent to that of a stock ticker and ticker tape.