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Однажды твоя жизнь будет оценена не по тому сколько денег ты заработал и сколько у тебя машин. А по тому как ты повлиял на чью-то жизнь...


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Boli Infectioase

Escherichia coli in the Americas Alfredo G. Torres


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In an interconnected and interdependent world, an outbreak caused by an infectious
agent in a country is of signifi cant concern because it could result in a sanitary emergency
affecting other countries. Globalization has greatly impacted the American
continent at different levels, including opening markets and aiding nations to sell
their products outside of the country, increasing the real-time communication abilities
and allowing an emphasis on international cooperation, as well as many other
fi nancial, cultural, and touristic benefi ts. However, this increased connectivity also
potentiates the risk of dissemination for emerging or reemerging infectious diseases.
In the case of Escherichia coli , a bacterium that is considered a benign as well as a
pathogenic organism, globalization has created a scenario in which a pathogenic
E. coli causes regional outbreaks that can quickly disseminate to other countries.
If such bacterial strains are resistant to one or more antibiotics, this becomes a global
health threat and alerts have to be in place to notify the authorities and the health
providers about such incidents. Globalization in the food chain supply and the distribution
of food products to different markets and populations increases the possibility
of a rapid spread of an infection caused by E. coli and other pathogenic organisms.
So there is need for rapid response and effort of the scientifi c community to identify,
diagnose, and understand the pathogenic E. coli responsible for the disease.
As such, the Latin American Coalition for E. coli Research (LACER) was created
in 2009, to promote and expand research efforts in the American continent, to support
and expand the best science, to prepare the next generation of scientist- physicians
and research investigators, and to work together with the community to translate
scientifi c fi ndings into products improving the well-being of the population. In 2016,
the LACER group consist of a multidisciplinary network of more than 60 international
research groups working on different aspects of pathogenic E. coli , including
but not restricted to epidemiology, pathogenesis, vaccine and therapeutic design and
testing, public health, surveillance, and clinical identifi cation and treatment.
One major goal of the educational mission of LACER is to advance our understanding
about this pathogen and disseminate such knowledge to the region and to the
world. Since its inception, some of the educational activities of LACER have included
workshops, symposiums, and minicourses for students, scientists, professors, and the

public in general, in different Latin American countries and the USA. In 2010, the
members of LACER decided to produce a book entitled Pathogenic Escherichia coli
in Latin America , which allowed leading investigators in the Latin American region
to discuss the mechanisms of E. coli pathogenesis as well as the methods of diagnosis,
clinical management, host immune responses, animal reservoirs, and epidemiology.
In addition, the book discussed epidemiological and public health issues
regarding pathogenic E. coli in representative Latin American countries.
As the LACER science grew strong and contributions started getting recognized
in different forums and social media platforms, the membership, which has expanded
signifi cantly, decided to produce a new book in which broader aspects of the pathogens’
lifestyles and the diseases they produce were discussed. The current book
entitled Escherichia coli in the Americas is a compilation of chapters by a large
number of E. coli experts in Latin America, the USA, and Canada. The book is
divided into three major areas: The fi rst includes chapters describing individual
pathogenic E. coli strains and their different virulence mechanisms used to cause
disease. The second includes common mechanisms used by this bacterium to interact
with animal or plant hosts (human, animals, and food products) and to resist
killing by antibiotics, etc. The third includes chapters devoted to the diagnostics,
therapeutic interventions, and vaccine design.
Through the years, LACER members have created a special bond, and this group
has become more than just some people working together. It has resulted in unique
combination of talent, expertise, and collaborative attitudes that makes the group
stronger together than apart. Everyone involved in collaborative research at LACER
has a role to play in building our understanding about the always evolving E. coli ,
and advancing technologies and methodologies to diagnose

 

Contents
1 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ............................................................ 1
Roberto M. Vidal , Nayaret L. Chamorro , and Jorge A. Girón
2 Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) ......................................... 27
Waldir P. Elias and Fernando Navarro-Garcia
3 Typical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli ........................................... 59
Isabel C. A. Scaletsky and Ulysses Fagundes-Neto
4 Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli ......................................... 77
Tânia A. T. Gomes , Denise Yamamoto , Mônica A. M. Vieira ,
and Rodrigo T. Hernandes
5 Enterohemorrhagic (Shiga Toxin-Producing) Escherichia coli .......... 97
Marta Rivas , Isabel Chinen , and Beatriz E. C. Guth
6 Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli ...................................................... 125
Mario Meza-Segura and Teresa Estrada-Garcia
7 Escherichia coli in Animals .................................................................... 149
Analía I. Etcheverría , Paula M. A. Lucchesi , Alejandra Krüger ,
Adriana B. Bentancor , and Nora L. Padola
8 Escherichia coli in Food Products .......................................................... 173
Lucía Galli , Victoria Brusa , Ricardo Rodríguez , Marcelo Signorini ,
Juan M. Oteiza , and Gerardo A. Leotta
9 Extra-Intestinal Escherichia coli (Uropathogenic E. coli
and Avian Pathogenic E. coli ) ................................................................ 205
Janaína L. Leite , Thaís C. G. Rojas , Renato P. Maluta ,
and Wanderley Dias de Silveira
10 Secretion Systems of Pathogenic Escherichia coli ................................ 221
Fernando Navarro-Garcia , Fernando Ruiz-Perez , Mariano Larzábal ,
and Angel Cataldi

11 Therapeutics and Vaccines Against Pathogenic Escherichia coli ....... 251
Marina S. Palermo , José Flores-Figueroa ,
and Mercedes Paredes-Paredes
12 Homeostasis vs. Dysbiosis: Role of Commensal Escherichia coli
in Disease .................................................................................................. 281
Claudia F. Martinez de la Peña , Glen D. Armstrong ,
Margarita M. P. Arenas- Hernández , and Roberto J. Cieza
13 Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli .............................................. 301
Theresa J. Ochoa and Oscar G. Gómez-Duarte
14 Interactions of Pathogenic Escherichia coli with Host Receptors ...... 323
Mauricio J. Farfán and Jorge A. Girón
15 Human Diarrheal Infections: Diagnosis of Diarrheagenic
Escherichia coli Pathotypes .................................................................... 343
Elizabeth Miliwebsky , Felipe Schelotto , Gustavo Varela ,
Daniela Luz , Isabel Chinen , and Roxane M. F. Piazza

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