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Curs: Anatomy of the Normal Skin


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Anatomy of the Normal Skin



The skin can be divided into three main functional areas. These are the:

*epidermis – the major protective layer derived from the fetal ectoderm;
*dermis – the major support layer – of mesodermal original;
*skin appendages composed of cells derived from both ectoderm and mesoderm (hair follicle, sebaceous gland, apocrine sweat gland, eccrine sweat gland, and nails).
*in addition a fourth area, the subcutaneous fat, may be involved in deeply situated skin lesions such as erythema nodosum.

  Four main layers and sometimes another one additional :

*cornified or horny layer - outer non-nucleated barrier layer;
*granular layer – the zone where epidermal nuclei disintegrate;
*spinosus or prickle cell layer – the bulk of the living epidermal keratinocytes;
*bazal layer – the only keratinocytes in normal epidermis which undergo cell division.
*These layers are best seen if a piece of thick, weight-bearing skin, such as that from the sole of the foot, is examined under the microscope. In this skin, a fifth layer can sometimes be seen just above the granular layer – the stratum lucidum.
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