The human hookworms include two nematode (roundworm) species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. You can become infected by direct contact with contaminated soil, generally through walking barefoot, or accidentally swallowing contaminated soil.
Fecal smear showing a single hookworm ova
Hookworm infection is diagnosed by detection of ova in feces.
Adult worms lay an average of 7000 eggs daily, which are expelled to the environment in feces.
warm soil provides optimal conditions for eggs to survive and hatch into infective larvae.
Contact with contaminated soil for 5 to 10minutes allows the larvae to penetrate the human host’s skin.
Hookworm eggs examined on wet mount (eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus cannot be distinguished morphologically).
Hookworm infection. Noembryonated egg of Necator americanus in a freshly-passed stool specimen. (eggs of N. americanus and Ancylostoma duadenale are difficult to distinguish from one another, although can be differentiated easily.)